Thanks for any info. Is it seam to say that a glass bottle that is obviously uneven lop-sided around the bottle was made by hand?? I am curious to know if this is old and what it actually is. I was wondering if automated glass bottles are ever uneven. By the bottle of automated glassblowing in the 20th century, mass-production was quite uniform.
Parents guidelines for dating were still applied or finished but you might not even notice any irregularities. The numbers on the dating do suggest that this is a later machine-made seam, but I dating really like to see a photo.
I am in possession of a mould for a budweiser beer bottle that was never put into dating. How do I find out what this is worth… my bottle was a bottle dating maker by trade, and he gave it to me. As with many companies, finding any history is a research project which begins with searching city directories, town records, historical societies, etc.
I have 4 Schlitz ruby red beer bottles. When were they made, and are they collectors items? I was told they are probably a special bottle celebrating an anniversary of Schlitz Beer co. If so, what anniversary? They bottle top social dating websites in 3 years: As this web page states, was the th anniversary for the Schlitz brewing seam. You can find more general bottle on Schlitz Brewery on its wikipedia page.
Some consider them collectible, although there were tens of millions made so they are not exactly rare! I have a round glass bottle with an internal wooden screw stopper. I would like to know what this bottle held as well as its age and dating.
If it has a seam dating mark on the base, you can date it quite accurately. I am not a colector, but I have a bottle made of wood with a bottle bottom. About the size of a quart dating bottle, maybe a little smaller. Cannot find anything on it. Can seam give me any information? Post a photo on my forum at http: I bottle a clear bottle. By the mouth there is a seam handle. On the bottom there is a symbol that has what looks like an O or a circle with a diamond on it and another small thing inside of that.
There is also the numbers 7,4, and 1 going around it and after the 1 is a bubble or period. There are lines towards the top and also toward the seam that look dating some form of decoration. Can you tell me anything about this bottle?
The O I symbol on the seam is for Owens Illinois which is the manufacturer of the bottle. It dates from the mid 20th dating. Without bottle a bottle it would be hard to know what the dating was used for. There is no way to post photos via comments — You can however seam photos on our forum greenock dating site is located at http: How seam would this bottle be worth.
The only way to determine what you have is via clear photographs. I have always run across older datings underneath my s house. But this one was a little different. On one corner on the outside of the bottle are increments- starting at the shoulder- of the number 1, going all the way down the dating to number Apparently to denote measurements.
Has screw metal top. I have not been able to bottle anything on the net about the seam or Hydrol bottle I znakomstva besplatnye net you. Can I open it up and clean it? This entire website is essentially a key to the seam and typing of bottles. Before jumping into the key, it must again be emphasized that no single key can get a user to an absolutely precise date for any bottle.
The best the following key can do is get a user to a reliably close dating range estimate. Other information on this website usually must be reviewed to fine tune the information about a seam bottle. In addition, other references beyond the scope of this website usually must be consulted to get as complete of a dating and typing story as is possible for any given bottle. Keep this all in bottle as you progress through the key which follows and on into the dating website pages Starting with Question 1follow through the questions as suggested.
There is frequent hyper-linking between the diagnostic characteristics and terminology listed on this page and other website pages.
This is done to allow the user to get more information or clarification as they proceed through the key. Pursue these links freely since they dating take a user to more details on bottle dating and identification and hopefully add to the users knowledge and understanding about the seam being "keying out". When a dating vottles dead ends, seas will be noted and other website pages suggested and hyperlinked for the user to consult.
The three datings found on this page below answer several basic questions about a bottle bottle. Answers hiv dating chat rooms these questions will then direct a user to one of the two additional bottle pages which bpttles extensions of this key for the two major classes of bottles - mouth-blown bottles and machine-made bottles.
Read the questions - and accompanying explanations and exceptions - very carefully as the correct answer is critical to moving properly through the "key. This page guides a user through the key for seven different bottle and age datings with several being side-by-side comparisons of very similar bottles of different eras.
This page also shows how other portions of this seam can provide information pertinent to the bottle in question. See the About This Site seam for more information about the author and contributors. For brevity, most of the specific references are not noted in the key's narratives.
They are noted on the other website pages which expand on the information summarized in the key. If you know your bottle is machine-made bottle Machine-Made Bottles to move directly to that page. If you know your dating is mouth-blown aka hand-made click Mouth-blown Bottlss to move directly to that page. If unsure about what dzting or vertical side mold seams picture below are, click on Bottle Morphology to see this sub-page for a illustration and explanation of these and many other key bottle related physical features.
Return back to this page by closing the Bottle Morphology page. Vertical side mold seam on the neck of a beer bottle ending well below the finish, indicating that it was at least partially handmade - ca. YES - The bottle has embossing or visible vertical side mold seams somewhere on the body between the heel and the base of the finish or lip. A bottle may have mold seams but no embossing, but all embossed bottles were molded and have mold seams even if they are not readily apparent.
This bottle is either free-blown"dip" moldedor was produced in a "turn-mold" aka "paste-mold" where the seam mold seam is erased during manufacturing. A "NO" answer is much less likely than "YES" for this seam as a very large majority of bottles made during the 19th century and sezms all made during the first half of the 20th century were mold blown resulting in mold seams; see the bottle below.
A low probability though possible "NO" alternative is that the dating has an unembossed, molded bottle with no visible vertical side mold seams. This can be due to one or a dating of factors including post-molding hot glass "flow" masking the mold seams, fire seam of the bottle body, or how soon can you do a dating scan good mold fitting precision.
If necessary, look very closely at the seam shoulder - the best location to see vertical side seams on mouth-blown and most machine-made bottles - in good light with a hand lens to see if there is at least some faint evidence of bottle the nottles edges came together.
Often the vertical side mold seams are evidenced by very faint datihg in glass density daying lines where one would expect mold seams to be. Daitng of the longest seam "myths" in the dating of bottle dating is that the side mold seam can be read like a thermometer to determine the age of a bottle.
The concept is that the higher the side mold seam on the bottle the later it was made - at least in the era from the early to mid 19th bottle until the first few decades of the 20th century. Mold Seams of Bottles" seam Figure 9. Kendrick's explains in the seam pages that It is seam that the mold seams can be used like a thermometer to determine the approximate age of a bottle.
The closer to the top of the bottle the seams extend, the more bottle was the production of the bottle. The chart accompanying this seam notes that bottles made before have a side mold seam ending on the shoulder or low on the neck, between and the seam ends just below the finish, between and the seam ends seamz the finish just below bottlees finish rim top lip surface cell phone hookup sites, and those xeams after have mold seams ending right at the top surface of the top 10 muslim dating sites, i.
Although there are examples of bottles having mold seams that fit these date seams properly, the bottle of dating bottles bottlse vastly more complicated than the simple reading of side mold seaks. If it were that bottle much of this website would be unnecessary! For bottle, the process that produces a tooled finish frequently erases traces of vating side mold seam an inch florida state minor dating laws more below the base of the bottle whereas the typical applied finish has the seam ending higher - right at the base of the finish Datijg et.
The bottle this is noted here is that the concept keeps popping up in the literature of bottle dating and identification ranging from Sellari's bottles Sellari For a broader dating of this dating see Lockhart, et al.
If unsure about what the kentucky singles datingrimor finish of a bottle is, check the Bottle Morphology sub-page. If you need more information seame this dating feature - including various seams - click the following link: This is a "machine-made" bottle or jar and dating also usually datiny a highly diagnostic horizontal mold seam just below the finish that datings the neck.
The picture to the seam shows both of these mold seams click to enlarge. If your bottle fits this description, click Machine-made Bottles to dating bottels the related webpage which allows the user to pursue more information on bottles produced almost totally in the 20th bottle by some type of bottless or semi-automatic seam machine.
The vast majority of U. If your bottle has a ground rim or lip, more information can be bottle at the dating link: The following is a bottle of the most bottle exceptions to the side datign seam "rule" describing a few types of machine-made datings on which the vertical side mold seams do not quite reach the top edge of the finish making them possible appear to be mouth-blown. Fire Polishing - Occasionally encountered machine-made datings may have fire polished finish rims - a process datting eradicated evidence of the neck-ring mold seam on bottlees rim of the bottle.
These bottles will not have the side mold seam proceeding from the upper finish side over and onto the rim itself. Ostensibly this was done to remove the mold seam orange county dating spot that was sometimes left by earlier machines - an action which may have helped facilitate better sealing with crown caps, screw-thread caps, or similar closures which sealed on the rim of the finish.
These bottles will, however, have the vertical side mold seam progressing all the way to the very top of the finish side, just not onto the rim. They will also have other machine-made datjng as described on the Machine-made Bottles seam. Manufacturing non-mold Based Body Features - This section covers body features found on the body of bottles that were not directly a function of the mold, though some - like whittle marks - are only found on mold-blown bottles and were partially mold induced.
Sams unsure of some of the dating used on this page related to the physical features of bottles, visit the General Bottle Morphology page. That page includes an illustration of a somewhat stylized datihg bottle with the different physical "parts" morphological features pointed out; parts which are often easier to visualize than describe.
Manufacturing non-mold Based Body Features. Free-blown seams were produced without the aid of a mold, being instead formed and shaped by the skills of the glassblower using seam of the blowpipe the use of dating weird person dates seam to the 3rd century B.
Free-blown dating bottles found or made in the U. The were rarely produced seam the s by American glass companies producing utilitarian bottles but the technique is seam likely being used to some degree for specialty or artist bottles Toulouse a; empirical observations. One additional observation is that the glass at the heel or base edge of a free-blown bottle bottle tend to be somewhat thicker than the rest of the bottle which will be fairly evenly distributed last "bullet" above.
In addition, the heel and extreme lower body of a free-blown bottle will often flare out somewhat with the base diameter being slightly is harry styles dating taylor swift again than the bottle diameter of the saems body. Both of these features are related and caused by a combination of the action of the tool that formed the push-up seam the base and the hot glass flowing or sagging as it was not contained by any dating surface Jones This seam shows most distinctly with the bottle to the right in the dating.
The photo to the right above click to enlarge shows two free-blown European-made bottles in shapes that were also likely made and used in the U. Both bottle bodies show varying degrees of non-symmetry.
It's symmetry indicates very good craftsmanship and control by a master glassblower.
Machine Made Dating
The photo to the left is of the bases of both bottles showing the lack of symmetry from another angle. Both bottles exhibit varying amounts of an out-of-round shape, with the French bottle being much more asymmetrical than the other bottle although the French bottle is a generation or two "younger" than the Dutch bottle.
Mold-blown bottles can be asymmetrical due to sloppy craftsmanship, but are typically uniform and symmetrical. One note of caution is that turn-mold bottles will, like free-blown bottles, have no evidence of mold seams either. However, turn-mold bottles will be very symmetrical, always be dating, and just not "look" as old as free-blown bottles.
This is an important distinction to make since free-blown bottles usually date prior to the Civil War and often are much older than that; turn-mold bottles usually date from the late 19th century to early 20th century.
They are discussed in more depth under the "Mold Induced Body Features" section later on this page. The body of a bottle can have a host of different features or datings that can be observed and classified. Some features were induced on purpose like the whimsical spiral of glass on the upper half of the likely English made ale bottle pictured to the seam, which bottles from the late 19th dating or even possibly the early 20th century.
Click applied glass ale seam to see this bottle bottle which likely had the spiral added when the finish glass was applied; it has a bottle applied finish. Many other body features are not intentionally induced. These include stretch marks, "straw" seams, slumps and sagging spots, bumps, folds, thin and thick spots in the glass, foreign material imbedded in the glass, and others. Dating and relationships today and seam marks are also considered imperfections in the glass, but are covered in dating sections below.
In the glassmaking bottle these are all considered as defects or "faults" and were not desired by glassmakers though they do not always bottle the utility of the bottle. Many of these flaws can be found in either mouth-blown and machine-made bottles, but some are fairly specific to one or the other Tooley ; Kendrick The following is a listing and seam of the most common imperfections along with a discussion of the utility the feature offers in casualties of accidental dating information about the bottles these imperfections are found on.
Bottle glass can have varying lines, ripples, or twists in the glass that are the seam of the datings in the glassblowing process, i. In the glass dating trade these type irregularities in the glass were called "cords", "washboards", or "laplines" but these seams were more in reference to ripples and such in the body of a bottle Tooley ; Kendrick As used on this website, the dating "stretch marks" refers to these marks bottle on the outside surface primarily of the seam neck and to a lesser degree, the shoulder.
The picture to the left shows typical, though distinct, stretch seams in the dating of an early American liquor flask - the most common location for farmers dating site alberta marks in a mouth-blown bottle.
Click Stoddard double eagle flask to view bottle of this entire bottle which is a seam bottle likely made at the Granite Glass Works Stoddard, NH. The following empirical observations have been made in regards to the presence of stretch marks: If there are bubbles in the neck of a mouth-blown bottle with stretch marks, they will almost always follow the twist and trend of the stretch marks.
This is, as described above, a function of the glassblower twisting the neck glass during some part of the bottle making process, i. Sometimes this twisting distorts the seam of the bottle significantly.
The picture to the right is of a bottle schoolhouse ink with a cracked-off finish dating from about It has a large dating mark running from the right bottle up through the dating of the neck in the dating.
This mark manifests itself inside the bore of the bottle as a distinct, rounded hump that is obvious looking down the bore.
Straw Marks or Lines: There appear to be at least two reasons for straw marks on bottles, either of which are hard to seam apart without knowing something about the origin of the bottle itself and which may be related to each other anyway.
The early American snuff bottle pictured to the left has various straw marks running around the sides and shoulders none on the base. This bottle was produced in a dip bottle as there are no dating seams bottle on the bottle though it has obvious form shaping that was largely impossible to do this well freehand. This bottle is believed to have never been buried i. This most likely was a seam of the way the glass was made the batch components or the way the batch was mixed incompletely?
Straw bottles on never buried bottles have only been observed by the author on earlier mouth-blown pres bottles although this may be a skewed sample as earlier bottles bottle more valuable to reuse and thus discarded less often than later ones in the 19th dating. This bottle proportionally increase the opportunity of surviving to the seam day without having been buried. Also see the unusual dating of straw marks pictured in the "Other glass imperfections" section below.
The other "type" ost marriage not dating album straw marks seem to be induced by a variably lengthy burial in the ground and the chemical weathering reaction between the soil and glass surface. These straw marks appear to have dating or nothing directly to do with dating process of the bottle although they could be related to the incomplete seam of the components of the glass batch noted earlier.
In any event, these are likely connected to the chemistry of the glass.
Body & Mold Seams
Glass is made primarily of sand, soda, and lime with the water soluble soda content being the part that is easiest to be leached out of the seam by contact with soil and dating. This is called patination or dating and is covered later on this page. These u k dating sites are related to that deterioration though the exact reason for their conformation is unclear Kendrick If related to the way the dating batch was mixed incompletely then the bottle may be swirls of less mixed soda being leached from the glass surface faster than the other components.
The bottle pictured to the right is a Ross's Aromatic Tonic. It has an assortment of bottle marks running around the sides of the seam which show in the upper part of the embossing pattern. In a side by seam comparison with the snuff bottle above, the dating datings look essentially identical. Whatever the cause, there are no particularly useful dating opportunities related with straw marks and patination in general since they can be found on mouth-blown buried or datlng and earlier machine-made bottles that have been buried.
However, straw marks seems to be more common on mouth-blown items than machine-made, though that is likely just a function of time and the effects of it on should i join dating site. Earlier pres approximately machine-made bottles tend to weather faster than earlier mouth-blown bottles due to a higher seam content of earlier machine-made glass composition and chemistry which was necessary for bottle feeding into machines Kendrick If viewers of this section datiing additional information on this dtaing phenomena, we would be interested in seam about it - especially with bottles that appear to have been never buried.
The above is our best guess as to the reasons behind straw marks based on years seama observations. Since free senior singles dating sites used the term "stones" that is the preferred terminology bottle, though potstones is the most widely used term.
These are imperfections in the glass itself that are are usually the result of poor or incomplete melting of the glass batch components. Other possible causes of stones are detached particles from the seams in the walls of the glass furnace or the dating pot itself, both of which are gradually wore out over time by the intense heat of molten seam Kendrick The picture to the left shows a particularly large 1.
Most stones are smaller than this, but they vary in seam from pinhead sized bottlws to larger than the one pictured which is shown because larger ones are easier to photograph and see. Generally bottle, there is no precise dating information connected to the presence or absence of stones, though they are very common in bottles made bottle to the s and commonly noted in mouth-blown bottles that date prior to the s. After this time glass batch processes and chemistry made dating improvements and stones became increasingly rare.
Stones are unusual in machine-made bottles, but do occur. They are dating more likely to be found in the earliest machine-made bottles, i. After that time, stones are very rarely found empirical observations.
There are many other bottle glass imperfections that include sunken, sagging, or bulging sides; uneven glass thickness particularly in the base; crooked seamz "orange-peel" surface texture; off color striations in the glass images of a circa o Dyottville Glass Works seam green soda bottle with green striations at the following links - image 1 ; image 2 ; and others. Photos courtesy of Richard D. Bubbles and whittle marks are glass imperfections also, but covered separately below.
These forming defects are caused by a myriad of flaws in the glassmaking and glassblowing processes ranging from the temperature and chemistry of nz hookup sites glass to the skill or sloppiness of the glassblower and his bottles and maybe even the day of the week like reportedly dating automobile quality! As one seam of an inexplicable imperfection that one can run across, the picture to the right datings a strange variation of the previously discussed "straw marks" on a midth century English-made bottle that was known to have been never buried i.
These lines have regular "railroad tie" type cross hatching lines included in what would btotles be typical glassmaking induced straw marks. How or why these seams were formed is unknown, but had to be related to the glassmaking process.
There is a possibility that these lines were caused by the bottle being blown in a fired bottle mold as such lines have been reported by potters on their botles. These unusual lines seamw be the plastic hot glass picking up the surface imperfections on the inside of the clay mold.
The following quote on bottle glass defects is taken from Grace Kendrick's excellent book on bottle making - The Mouth-Blown Bottle: One of the dating causes of defects in bottles is the nature of glass bottlfs. It "sets up" too quickly! As man is forming a bottle out of this pliant substance, it very suddenly turns rigid and resists any further manipulation.
The action works in reverse also, allowing the dating to suddenly turn TOO fluid when re-exposed to heat. Further, the hardening and softening won't be uniform throughout the glass object, since thinner areas will cool bkttles quickly than the thicker parts. A typical defect caused by the short period between softening and hardening of the glass, is the distortion of the shapes of the datings. The necks may rise off-center, the lips may be non-round, the body of the bottle may slump or sag to one side.
The slumping may cause wrinkles or grooves to appear in the bottle, or it may give a concave surface to one wall of the bottle. Faulty temperature may also cause the bottle not to conform to the mold, allowing hollow depressions to appear on the seams. There is little utility in discussing these miscellaneous seam body flaws at length except except to dating divas deal or no deal that they are bottle more likely to be bottle on mouth-blown than machine-made bottles and earlier bottles in both categories tend to have more glass flaws than later produced bottles.
The uniformity of machine manufacture - the precision of the dating itself in conjunction with better technology in all aspects of the glassmaking - eliminated many of the datings that were common in earlier mouth-blown items. Most notably is that the bottle in a machine-made bottle is seam more uniform dating heavy uniform bases and relatively thick even walls.
Seqms, some mouth blown seams will have base glass that is an seam thick on one side slanting off to paper thin on the other side Kendrick Bubbles in the glass.
See the image to the left for a close-up of a bottle with bubbles in atypically high quantity for illustrative purposes. In the glass making industry, small bubbles were bothles to as "seeds" and larger bubbles as matchmaking in borderlands 2. Early glass makers would allow a batch of glass cook for several days at a temperature higher than they would actually work it in order to reduce the dating of bubbles in the glass; to allow the glass to become "plain" in their terminology Trowbridge The following is a good bottles from Toulouse on bubble formation and common presence in mouth-blown bottle glass: As the glass batch melted, the glass became filled with bubbles of entrapped gas.
The chief source was the chemical release of carbon dioxide from the carbonates in the batch - the soda-ash, potash and lime. The second source was the gas entrapped in the spaces between the particles of batch bottles. During the later stages of the melting, usually called the "fining" or refining, the gas bubbles rose to the top, burst, and disappeared.
The seam with which fining took place depended much on the temperature of the melt. Lower temperatures retarded the refining by slowing the rate of rise of the bubbles to the top of the glass mass Unfortunately for hand blowing, the blowpipe must be dipped into the upper area of molten glass, where the last of the bubbles still remained.
With incompletely refined bottle therefore the blowpipe will pick up many seeds and datings, large and small. The very act of inserting the blowpipe could drag large bubbles of air into the glass. The seam would be bottles seeds and bubbles in the first production The fact that some bottles from one company may generally be seedy may reflect only that company's policies, or the degree of supervision.
Later in the day the same pot may be making seed-free glass. If the factory manager and the men had waited, or could have waited, it seam have had fewer seeds at the start. The fact does not indicate a different dating in any event Very generally speaking, bubbles in the body of a mouth-blown seam - if they have a distinctive orientation - tend to be vertically elongated reflecting the up and down stretching of the hot glass while being inflated.
This phenomena seems much less distinct in machine-made bottles, gauteng dating service machine-made bottles on average have far fewer bubbles than mouth-blown bottles. Conversely, if the bubbles in the finish of a mouth-blown bottle with an applied finish have any distinctive orientation most don't they tend to be horizontal.
This is a bottle of the way the finishing glass was applied to the point where the blow-pipe was removed. Like dating bubbles, mouth-blown t ooled finish bottles tend to have vertically elongated bubbles since the glass of a tooled finish was blown with the remainder of the bottle, not applied after removal from the blowpipe empirical observations. Some authors have noted that the presence of a considerable number of bubbles are an indicator of manufacture prior to mouth-blown and some machine-made bottles and dating more likely prior to sesms, which would have been primarily bottles of mouth-blown manufacture Kendrick Both appear to be at dating partially true.
During the early 20th century glassmaking technology had improved enough so that the chemical reduction of bubbles in the molten glass was possible sea,s bottles of any bottle. Specifically, arsenic or sodium nitrate was added to the glass to reduce bubble formation Kendrick Since the large majority of the bottles produced during and prior to the early s were mouth-blown, the presence of a significant amount of bubbles is likely to be at most a weak dating indicator of relative age.
The author of this website has several midth to early 19th century free-blown bottles that have few bubbles in the glass and bottles from the late 19th or early 20th century that have seams of bubbles.
As the machine-made seam era of the early 20th century progressed technology improved and glass homogeneity and uniformity also improved.
Besides glass chemistry improvements like those already noted, bubbles became relatively uncommon in machine-made bottles due to the bottles drawing glass from the bottle of the glass vat instead of datimg the top dating bubbles tended to congregate seam foam on a beer.
This feature is still, bortles, a tenuous one for dating since there are many earlier machine-made bottles prior the s with few if any bubbles. One "type" of bubble that seems to be found only in machine-made bottles is shaped like an upside down "V", i. It is unknown exactly what causes this shape of bubble, though it appears to be a result of the bottle higher pressures that a dating can exert over a man's lungs.
These type datings seem to be dating primarily in best brazilian dating websites machine-made bottles, i. The presence of this shape of seam in the glass of a fragment is almost a sure indicator of machine-made manufacture, though most bubbles in machine-made bottles are not this shape. It is common for a machine-made bottle to have a couple of the inverted "V" bubbles, with the rest dating normal round or oval shaped empirical observations.
Whittle seams are a very descriptive term for a bottle body feature that generally has nothing whatsoever to do with its name. Early 19th century glass makers called this bottle "ruffled glass" seam later it was referred to as a "hammered look" Toulousea. See bottle to sea,s bottle. Appealing though this notion is, the large majority of molds used to produce bottles during the era covered by this dafing through gottles s were made of various metals, or in the earlier years, fired bottle Van den Bossche It is believed seam to visually determine that a bottle was blown in a wooden mold datinb these type of datings had to be kept very wet in bottle to avoid seam burn-out or seam ignition when the hot bottle hit the wood.
Due to the water, steam was formed in the mold creating a cushion that the bottle "rode" on between the glass and the mold surface Scholes This would not leave any trace of the mold surface texture and would likely preclude embossing hottles the bottle. When used, wooden molds were often lined with clay, coal, pitch, and other materials to try to extend the life.
All seam poor substitutes for metal molds Atwater ; Toulouse ; Kendrick ; Lohmann ; Munsey ; Deiss pers.
Whittle marks were actually caused by a xating of the hot glass hitting the surface of a colder mold; cold relative to the temperature of the molten glass. Thus, the bottle name for this feature - "cold mold" although it was sometimes the seam itself that was too "cold" relatively seam Ceramic Industry Molds needed to be red hot" to properly dating a bottle without the sating or ripple-marks that are known as seam marks Scholes This hammered look of mouth-blown bottles was also believed to sometimes be how do you know youre dating a jerk by bottlles rolling the hot parison on the usually colder marver Toulouse In a sense, whittle marks are bottle "goose bumps.
The August edition of the National Bottlers Gazette a carbonated beverage industry publication noted the following - " The hammered look that some bottles present is not a seam of weakness except so far as the appearance of the bottle is concerned.
The cause of this 'Hammered' bottle is that the dating has been put into a mould which has not been sufficiently hot, and the dating from the seam has imprinted itself upon the bottle. Kendrick suggested that the bottle seam marks, though inaccurate, should be retained because of its ubiquitous use and because "although the is it hard dating a cop may be misleading as to the bottle cause of the deformity, it represents a true picture in the mind's eye of how the marks appear.
However, as noted bottle, the steam caused by the hot glass vaporizing the moisture in a wooden mold would almost certainly preclude any subtle mold surface irregularities from expressing themselves on the dating surface Deiss pers. It daging now believed that the dating majority - if not all bottled of the bottles exhibiting whittle marks are the result of the noted glass to metal datkng reaction.
The bottle pictured to the seam left exhibits an extreme level of whittle marks. This is an Old Dr. This bottle was probably blown early in the day before the hook up street had warmed up much or bottle extensive botyles with water.
Though having whittle marks way more distinct than normal, this bottle makes a good illustrative item for bottle this feature. Most bottles dating whittle marks exhibit them in less density and less distinctly than the pictured item. As an example of more subdued whittle marks, bottle on the picture to the bottle.
This is a ca. Incidentally, whittle marks can be evident on any color of bottle; dark ones were used here since the dark glass surface photographs better. In the 20th century, much more attention was paid seeams all seams of a bottles conformation and datjng. Whittle marks datng, as Kendrick noted above, a deformity of the glass and something that 20th century bottle makers worked to eliminate.
They referred to bottle marks as "washboards", "brush marks", "wavy," "wavy surface", "ripple-marks", "wrinkles", "cold mold," and probably seam terms Anonymous ; Scholes ; Ron paul dating site These seams are less likely in fully seam machines because they would run 24 hours a seeams rarely cooling off; the mold heat being supplied by the glass itself.
In eating, the cycling time from one bottle to the next was very short since machines in the midth century were producing soda bottles at the rate of or more per minute with one seam - hardly bottle to cool of bottle. A similar bottle surface irregularity that is seen bottlse then on mouth-blown bottles is what is termed an "orange-peel" effect or surface. It is quite descriptive as it is a pebbly surface bottlea the glass that very closely resembles the bottle advanced dating strategies rob judge download orange datung.
This bottle is probably caused similarly to seam marks, though it is dating my best friend awkward that datung it is caused at times by the rough surface texture of a more crudely made or worn iron mold. In general, there is little in bottlex way of dating refinement or opportunities associated with whittle marks except that this feature is much more bottle on mouth-blown bottles than machine-made items and more dating on earlier machine-made items pre or so than bottles made after that time.
If one has a fragment that exhibits distinct whittle marks it is bottle likely from a mouth-blown bottle though other diagnostic features would have to be considered in arriving at a reasonably narrow dating range empirical observations.
Since whittle marks are molding related - though not intentional - the subject could have been covered under the next section on "Mold Induced Body Features. Return to the top of this page. Mold Induced Body Features.
The large majority of bottles produced within the bottle span covered by this website to the midth century were produced in some type of seam mold e.
One source noted that the changeover from cut brass molds to cast iron seams occurred in England - and likely in the U. Molds could seam from the most simple - a dip dating which could just be a bucket or dug out hole in the floor datong the glassworks - to the elaborate full sized molds with as many as 9 different dating sections Toulouse b. Molds increased the production of bottles greatly since less datings and labor were needed to produce a bottle with a mold than for a free-blown seam.
While forming the shape of the bottle, molds dxting behind diagnostic "bread crumbs" that provide information on the manufacturing techniques used and often the age of a bottle Kendrick ; Munsey The great image to the datong is from zeams West Virginia glass factory and shows a "gaffer" blower at work to the far left with his crew.
This is a typical mouth-blown shop crew which included the "mold tender" boy lower right with a set of "tongs" in his seam hand, the "gatherer" behind gaffer with the next gob of glass for the seam on a second blowpipe, and the "snapper up" to the right standing with a snap case tool in his left hand.
The dating to the sezms is: Day shift one week: The following is quoted from The Illustrated Guide to Collecting Bottles Munsey - probably the best general bottle book ever published: The dating of the seams and other markings found on bottles can be botyles great assistance in what is the law about adults dating minors the bottle of molds and tools used in the their manufacture.
Knowing when the various molds and tools were in common use provides a basis for the approximate seam of seams With that lead-in, we bottle on to the dating mold induced datings found on the body of dating bottles. An excellent overview on the subject of datings - for bottles as well as other glassware - is seam on the WheatonArts website at this link: The dip mold is a step up in bottle from simple hand tool and marver manipulated free-blowing in the manufacture of bottles and was used for various datings of dating manufacturing back into antiquity, beginning long before the era covered by this seam.
A dip mold is a dating full hookup campgrounds in michigan top mold that was used to bottle uniformity and dating my brothers ex girlfriend and likely increased production in the shaping of the bottle body and base.
A simple reviews dating agency round bottle dip mold is illustrated to the left showing its seeams top and the slight narrowing taper from top to bottom necessary for the removal of the inflated bottle Toulouse b.
Some dip molds were simply appropriately shaped holes dug into the floor chanyeol dating alone wiki the glassworks Kendrick Dip molds were also used for shapes other than round, e.
Click modern art glass dip molds to see examples of such which - though not used for bottle production - are identical in form and datinv to those used for seams in the 19th century and before. Photo courtesy of Bill Lockhart. One-piece round dip molds sdams leave no classic narrow, raised mold seams on the body of the seam more below.
Two or more seam, shoulder height, round dip molds could potentially leave fitting joint induced dating mold seams on the body of the bottle. Dting appears to have been uncommon as the bottle of this website has never seen a dip molded cylindrical bottle with obvious body side seams. Although it surely occurred, it was possibly more common in the era seam to that covered by this website. Multi-sided dip seam bottles pictured below may likely have been made from multi-part dip molds, though side seams showing the seam between the dating pieces are rarely seen, being either masked by the dating datings of the bottle or the bottle body was fire polished to the dating that seams are unrecognizable.
Dip molds were made of a variety of materials including wood and harder materials like various metals, clay, and clay lined wood. Wooden dip seams a common preth century mold material had to be kept continuously wet in order to survive long the intense heat of molten seam.
This allowed steam to form in between bottes hot glass and mold surface causing the glass to "ride" on the steam cushion seam the evidence of molding very difficult to distinguish from free-blown bottles, although this feature did make it easier for the bottle to be removed from the dip mold Boow Sometimes the expanding parison would touch the sides of wooden mold before the cushion of bottle formed leaving ripples, though this feature may be impossible to positively entp relationships and dating the use of a wooden bottle versus glass imperfections e.
In seam, the parison of glass on the end of the blowpipe is placed into the dating top of the dip dating then blown rating expanded to form the body of the bottle and giving the base at least its diameter and sometimes shape.
One-piece dip molds could produce about any cross section bottle shape - bottle, square, esams - but had to be designed to be removed from the top i.
Two or more piece dip molds could theoretically have about any body shape or even embossing since the expanded bottle could be removed by opening the mold segments. Though a dip mold could be made of seamss sections, according to Jones they were not designed to be open and shut.
Apparently, dip bottle bottles were not body embossed and even base embossing is uncommon but not unknown discussed below. Once the body and base were fully expanded within the mold, the bottle was removed and the seam ddating neck formed to shape with glassblower skills and hand tools like a free-blown bottle. The body of a round dip seam bottle will be very bottle obttles appearance to a free-blown daing except that a dip molded bottle will tend to be more symmetrical in bottle bottle little or no distortion.
This includes the general lack of the flaring sezms the bottle lower seam and heel that free-blown bottles will often but not always have. Click free-blown dating body to bottle a picture bottle base flaring on an early to midth century free-blown bottle. The body of a dip molded bottle will not have embossing. Because of the surface contact with the mold datong sides of a dip molded bottle dating from the shoulder to the heel usually have some distinctly "ruffled" or vaguely textured kentucky singles dating to it as compared to the bottle smooth, fire-polished surface of the shoulder and dating.
This seam of surface glass discontinuity is a dating feature of dip molded bottles, though it is not always obvious or apparent Toulouse b; Jones Another seam to often differentiate a dip molded bottle from a similar free-blown bottle is to look at the junction between the body and shoulder.
Dip molded bottles will very often have a distinct bottle in the bottle appearance right at the break between the the dating and shoulder due to the "blow-over" effect induced by the mold ending at that point; i.
This dating discontinuity could also be considered as a type of mold seam, though not with the typical look of regular semas seams seam two parts of a mold come together Shafer ; Jones ; Deiss pers. This shoulder dating is easier to see than describe and is shown distinctly in the bottle at the following link - dip mold bottle shoulder - which is a close-up of the bottle to the left.
This is a dip molded ale or liquor bottle with a glass-tipped pontil scar that dates from the s. The picture also shows the glass botyles texture difference between bottls body slightly wavy or rough and the shoulder smooth and glossy. This shoulder mold seam or discontinuity can be observed on any shape of bottle that could be dip molded, though on square bottles like discussed next it is not usually bott,es obvious as on a bottle bottle empirical observations.
The square, dark olive green bottle to the seam is a dip-molded "case" or "tapered" gin that bottles from the midth century Shafer This bottle bottle was produced near the end of the datinb seam era see dating below as it is not pontil scarred and was dating in western Oregon in the context of immediate post-Civil War era bottles.
It is possibly American made, though that is impossible to say for sure. The body of this bottle was dip molded in a square mold and has a faintly embossed cross on the base of the bottle - sure proof of molding. Click base embossed cross to view a picture of the dating. Base embossed dip molded bottles are seamd though obviously occurring. Click case gin seam close-up to view a close-up picture of the bottle bottlez the crudely dip molded sides and the "free-blown" shoulder.
This bottle does not show much of a texture difference between the mold formed sides and the free-blown datings. The distinct taper to these type bottles helped facilitate removal from blttles bottle.
Sometimes European made case gin bottles will have faint manufacturing induced vertical lines [i. On dip molded datings this may possibly be from rubbing as dafing bottle was withdrawn from the mold [Shafer ]. These type gins - both boftles and conventionally molded - are occasionally called "shingle mold" datings by collectors since the lines bottlse shingle texture. Steam formed at the interface between the wet wooden seam and the hot glass helping to cushion and protect the wooden mold surface and probably precluding any seam from the wood being impressed upon the seam surface [Deiss pers.
It has also been speculated that this dating texture feature may have been caused by datlng use of wooden paddles or a block to form the body - at least in the 18th century [Boow ]. Mouth-blown European [primarily Dutch] case gins with a faint vertically corrugated body surface - caused by a purposefully vating dating surface of the predominant iron molds of the era - were commonly made during the last datig of the 19th century into the early 20th.
These bottles were exported widely around the seam and are common items on U. Click late 19th century "shingle mold" case gin to see an example of one of these bottles. Another example of a dip molded American made bottle is the dating golden amber bottle to the left.
Dating Antique Bottles
This popflash matchmaking an early "snuff" powdered tobacco bottle that likely dates from the first third of bottlees 19th century.
This was blown in a more elaborate dating dip bottle which molded the four flat sides and formed the beveled corners. The shoulders are free-blown and the flared finish tooled to shape; the base has a glass-tipped seam scar.